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Keeping up to date with current evidence and literature is part of your responsibility and a requirement of your regulator - either the NMC or HPC.  Use the references in this unit, and also remember that The Knowledge Network is an excellent source of information and a site where you can share knowledge with peers.

Further Reading

 The following list summarises some of the key literature on reflection used in this unit.

  • reduces the theory-practice gap (Perkins 1996; Fonteyn & Cahill 1998; Getliffe 1996; Foster & Greenwood 1998; Smith 1998; Burton 2000; Carney 2000; Duke & Appleton 2000; Maudsley & Scrivens 2000b; Stewart & Richardson 2000; Koh 2002).
  • encourages critical thinking ability (Patton et al 1997; Durgahee 1998; Foster & Greenwood 1998; Burton 2000; Maudsley & Scrivens 2000b; Cotton 2001)
  • enhances personal development by leading to self-awareness (Cotton 2001)
  • helps practitioners to make more sense of difficult and complex practice (Driscoll & Teh 2001)
  • the focus of reflection is improvement in patient care therefore it helps to expand and develop clinical knowledge and skills (Graham 2000; Platzer et al 2000; Driscoll & Teh 2001; Paget 2001)
  • slows down activity thereby providing time to process material of learning and link it to previous ideas (Moon 2002)
  • enables greater ownership of the learning taking place (Moon 2002)
  • promotes optimum effectiveness and efficiency of health and social care particularly in an ever evolving and complex health care system through practitioners reflecting and auditing their own practice (Degazon & Lunney 1995; Carr 1996; Clark et al 1996; Durgahee 1996; Heath 1998; Hinett & Weeden 2000).
  • "Reminds qualified practitioners that there is no end point to learning about their everyday practice" (Driscoll & Teh 2001: 98).

Atkins, S., Murphy, K. (1993) Reflection: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing 18 (8) 1188 - 1192

Bulman, C., Schutz, S. (2004) Reflective Practice in Nursing. 3rd ed. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing

Burnard, P. (2002) Learning Human Skills: An Experiential and Reflective Guide for Nurses and Health Care Professionals. 4th ed. Oxford, Butterworth Heinemann

Burton, A.J. (2000) Reflection: Nursing's practice and education panacea? . Journal of Advanced Education 31 (5)1009-1017

Carney, M. (2000) The development of a model to manage change: reflection on a critical incident in a focus group setting. An innovative approach. Journal of Nursing Management 8, 265-272

Carper, B.A. (1978) Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science-Practice Orientated Theory. 1 (1) 13-23

Carr, E. (1996) Reflecting on clinical practice: hectoring talk or reality? Journal of Clinical Nursing 5, 289-295

Clark, B., James, C., Kelly, J. (1996) Reflective practice; reviewing the issues and refocusing the debate. International Journal of Nursing Studies 33 (2) 171-180.

Cotton, A.H. (2001) Private thoughts in public spheres: issues in reflection and reflective practices in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 36 (4) 512-519

Degazon, C.E., Lunney, M. (1995) Clinical journal: a tool to foster critical thinking for advanced levels of competence. Clinical Nurse Specialist 270-274

Driscoll, J., Teh, B. (2001) The potential of reflective practice to develop individual orthopaedic nurse practitioners and their practice. Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing 5, 95-103

Duke, S., Appleton, J. (2000) The use of reflection in a palliative care programme: a quantitative study of the development of reflective skills over an academic year. Journal of Advanced Nursing 32 (6) 1557-1568.
Durgahee, T. (1996) Promoting reflection in post-graduate nursing: a theoretical model. Nurse Education Today 16, 419-426

Durgahee, T. (1998) Facilitating reflection: from the sage on the stage to a guide on the side. Nurse Education Today 18, 158-164

Fonteyn, M.E., Cahill, M. (1998) The use of clinical logs to improve nursing students' metacognitions: a pilot study. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28 (1) 149-154.

Foster,J. & Greenwood,J. (1998) Reflection: A challenging innovation for nurses. Contemporary Nurse 7, 165-172.

Getliffe , K.A. (1996) An examination of the use of reflection in the assessment of practice for undergraduate nursing students. International Journal of Nursing Studies 33 (4) 361-374.

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford, Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic.

Graham, I.W. (2000) Reflective practice and its role in mental health nurses' practice development: a year-long study. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 7, 109-117

Heath, H. (1998) Paradigm dialogues and dogma: finding a place for research, nursing models and reflective practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28 (2) 288-294

Hinett, K., Weeden, P. (2000) How am I doing?: developing critical self-reflection in trainee teachers. Quality in Higher Education 6 (3) 245- 257

Johns C (1999) Reflection as empowerment? Nursing Inquiry 6 (4) 241 - 249

Johns, C. (2000) Becoming a Reflective Practitioner: A Reflective and Holistic Approach to Clinical Nursing, Practice Development and Clinical Supervision. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.

Johns, C. (2004) Becoming a reflective practitioner. 2nd edn. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing

Johns, C. (2005) Transforming Nursing Through Reflective Practice. 2nd edn. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing.

Koh, L.C. (2002) Practice-based teaching and nurse education Nursing Standard 16 (19) 38-42
Maudsley, G. & Scrivens, J. (2000b) Promoting professional knowledge, experiential learning and critical thinking for medical students. Medical Education 34, 535-544

Moon, J. (2002) PDP Working paper 4: Reflection in Higher Education Learning. Learning and Teaching Support Network Generic Centre

Paget, T. (2001) Reflective practice and clinical outcomes: practitioners' views on how reflective practice has influenced their clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing 10, 204-214

Patton, J.G., Woods, S.J., Agarenzo, T., Brubaker, C., Metcalf, T., Sherrer, L. (1997) Enhancing the clinical practicum experience through journal writing. Journal of Nursing Education 36 (5) 238-240

Perkins, J. (1996) Reflective journals: suggestions for educators. Journal of Physical Therapy Education 10 (1) 8-13

Platzer, H., Blake, D., Ashford, D. (2000) Barriers to learning from reflection: a study of the use of groupwork with post-registration nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 31 (5) 1001-1008

Smith, A. (1998) Learning about reflection. Journal of Advanced Nursing 28 (4) 891-898

Taylor, B. (2000) Reflective Practice: A Guide for Nurses and Midwives. Buckingham, Open University Press.